Hawai‘i Volcanoes 2016

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Sulfer deposits at Ha‘akulamanu (Sulfer Banks). Hydrothermal vents occur along fractures associated with normal faults that form the northern border of the cauldera, and release SO2 and other magmatic gasses, as well as water vapor.

All images copyright © 2016 F.W. Vollmer and may not be used without permission.